Banana peels have various health benefits to excellent nutritional status, and it treats the intestinal lesion, diarrhoea, dysentery, ulcerative colitis, nephritis, gout, cardiac disease, hypertension, and diabetes. This study aimed to utilize flour from banana peel to develop functional cookies. Banana peel flour was substituted in wheat flour at 11, 13 and 15 %, then used to produce cookies. Composite cookies produced were evaluated for proximate composition, mineral composition and heavy metals content as well as anti-nutritional content. Result of proximate composition of the cookies indicated that increase in addition of banana peel flour resulted in increase in the fat, ash and crude fibre of the composite cookies. The fat, ash and crude fibre varied between (12.00 – 12.20%), (2.26 – 2.73%) and (1.03 – 1.33%) respectively. From the result of mineral analysis, it was observed that calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, potassium and sodium of the cookies ranged between 70.00-150.00 mg/100g, 6.66–40.00 mg/100g, 23.33–55.00 mg/100g, 1.36–4.76 mg/100g, 0.01–0.23 mg/100g, 0.16–0.40 mg/100g, 93.33–140.00 mg/100g and 233.33–340.00 mg/100g respectively. Cookies supplemented with flours of banana peel had higher contents of all these minerals but zinc than those produced from wheat flour alone. Cookies supplemented with banana peel flour had higher anti-nutritional values than the control in terms of (phytates, phenols, flavonoids, saponin and tannin) examined. Heavy metals content of the cookies shows that there were little or no traces and it is within the standard limit control of recommended daily allowance. It was concluded that the use of flours from banana peels as composites of wheat had good potential for production of nutritionally superior cookies compared to the use of wheat alone. This study may be an economically viable approach towards promoting utilization of food wastes for production of value added products in developing countries such as Nigeria, where food security has been a major challenge.
The knowledge of nutritional and bioactive component as well as the antioxidant activity of banana peels can help in development of cookies in order to reduce waste generation, environmental pollution and reduce cost in waste disposal. Inclusion of banana peel in cookies production can serve as a potential source of functional food ingredients in its production to prevent damages caused by free radicals in the body.
Cookies, composite flour, banana peels, heavy metals, anti-nutrients