Ten plant extracts were evaluated in vitro against Aspergillus niger van Tieghem and Penicillium chrysogenum Thom. which cause seed rot and decay of sunflower seeds. Cold water extracts of Neem (Azadirachta indica L.); Mahogany Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss. African bush tea (Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit; Acacia (Acacia senegalensis (Houtt.) Roberty and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora (Hook) obtained from leaves and fruits were used to amend cheek hot potato dextrose agar prior to dispensing to petri dish. Cultures of Aspergilus niger van Tieghem and Penicillium chrysogenum Thom. from Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) seed were aseptically transferred with No. 4 cork borer to the center of solidified media. These were incubated at ambient conditions and sporulation inhibition efficiency of amendment obtained. Petri dishes containing the different treatments were arranged in complete randomized design with five replications of each treatment. Number of spores harvested, 72 hours after incubation were significantly influenced by the type and source of extract used for the amendment. Spore counts of A. niger were inhibited with leaves of H. suaveolens (L.) Poit, followed by K. senegalensis, leaves while Acacia extracts amendment had least effect on the number of spores harvested. However, P. chrysogenum had the highest spore inhibition when incubated with media amended with A. indica seeds and leaves. The extracts tested in this study have the potency to inhibit the deterioration of stored Sunflower seeds.
The tested extracts can be used to control the development of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum on Sunflower seeds.
Plant extracts, Sunflower seeds, Sporulation, A. niger, P. chrysogenum