Banana (Musa acuminata), is grown worldwide and normally consumed as ripe fruit. Their peels are considered as a waste and contribute to environmental problem due to their high nitrogen and phosphorus content. Banana peels contain natural bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, carotenoid and dietary fiber which offer health benefits including protection against cardiovascular diseases, cancer and other degenerative diseases. Banana of fifth stage of ripening was selected, separated into pulp and peel. The ripe peels were divided into two portions, A and B. One portion was allowed to ferment for 24 hours while the other portion did not undergo fermentation process. Protein, fat and crude fibre contents varied between 6.16-6.92%, 0.37-0.68% and 2.70-3.20% respectively. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid varied between 26.96-34.03 GAE/g and 291.66-428 mg/100g of dry matter respectively. Ripe fermented “Omini” banana (RFO) peel flour contained higher total phenolic content (34.03 GAE/g) and total flavonoid content (428 mg/100g) when compared with other varieties. Radical scavenging activities (inhibition of DPPH/IC50) of the extracts ranged between 2.89 to 4.35%, RFO peel which had the highest polyphenols and carotenoid could be incorporated into value-added foods and can serve as a functional food.
The knowledge of nutritional and bioactive component as well as the antioxidant activity of banana peels can help in food formulation and supplementation in order to reduce wastage generation, environmental pollution and reduced cost in waste disposal. Banana peel can serve as a potential source of functional food ingredients in processed food products to prevent damages caused by free radicals in the body.
Banana Peel, Fermentation, Proximate composition, Total phenolic content, Total flavonoid content, DPPH Scavenging activities.